Whilst COVID-19 infection generally run a mild course in up to 80% of those affected, a number of pre-existing co-morbidities determine the severity of infection and the outcome in an individual patient. The most important of these co-morbidities that have consistently emerged in studies from across the globe, are the patients age and sex. Other important co-morbidities that adversely affect outcomes include pre-existing diabetes, obesity, hypertension, chronic lung disease and malignancy. This comprehensive review discusses the impact of these co-morbidities and the role of laboratory predictors of poor patient outcomes.
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