Thoracoscopic and endovascular management of retained haemothoarx associated with an intercostal artery pseudoaneurysm.

Intercostal artery pseudoaneurysm (IAP) is a rare entity and may complicate a percutaneous intervention through an intercostal space or follow thoracic trauma. Its rupture into the pleural space can give rise to haemothorax, which if untreated may lead to a retained haemothorax (RH). Traditionally both the IAP and the RH are managed by a thoracotomy. We report a patient who developed an IAP with haemothorax following a trauma. The diagnosis was established by computed tomography. The patient was treated by endovascular embolisation of the IAP followed by thoracoscopic decortications of the RH.

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